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Jan 30, 2013


The clinical course may be complicated by several conditions including infection, sepsis, osteomyelitis, fistulas, and carcinoma.8 Preventive measures in persons at risk can significantly reduce the incidence of pressureulcers. Successful management should address the four etiologic factors as well as the general condition of the patient. Learning Objective: At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should be able to discuss the classification, etiology, complications, prevention, as well as the management of pressureulcers.

Pressure ulcers can trigger other ailments, cause patients considerable suffering, and be expensive to treat. Some complications include autonomic dysreflexia, bladder distension, osteomyelitis, pyarthroses, sepsis, amyloidosis, anemia, urethral fistula, gangrene and very rarely malignant transformation (Marjolin's ulcer - secondary carcinomas in chronic wounds). Sores often recur because patients do not follow recommended treatment or develop seromas, hematomas, infections, or dehiscence. Paralytic patients are the most likely people to have pressure sores recur. In some cases, complications from pressure sores can be life-threatening. The most common causes of fatality stem from renal failure and amyloidosis. Pressure ulcers are also painful. Patients of all ages and patients with all stages of pressure ulcers report pain.


1. http://www.nursingcenter.com/

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/

3. NUPAP.org

4. J Am Med Dir Assoc. Thomas DR, Diebold MR, Eggemeier LM (2005). "A controlled, randomized, comparative study of a radiant heat bandage on the healing of stage 3-4 pressure ulcers: a pilot study". 6 (1): 46–9.

5. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. "Preventing Pressure Ulcers in Hospitals". Retrieved 8 June 2012.

6. Adv Skin Wound Care ."Pressure ulcers in America: prevalence, incidence, and implications for the future. An executive summary of the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel monograph". 14 (4): 208–15. 2001.

7. D.Whitteridge, ‘Guttmann, Sir Ludwig (1899–1980)’, rev. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2012.

8. J Am Acad Dermatol. “Pressure ulcers.” 1998 Apr;38(4):517-36.